Kronologi Sejarah dan Latar Belakang Agresi Militer Belanda II

Belanda tidak mematuhi perjanjian Renville, sehingga kembali terjadi Agresi Militer II yang oleh mereka tetap disebut sebagai Politional Activ. Mereka langsung menyerang pusat pemerintahan yang berada di Bukit Tinggi dan Yogyakarta. Penyerbuan ini dilakukan, secara mendadak. Informasi yang diberikan pada pihak RI pun pada tengah malam tanggal 18 Desember 1948. 
The Dutch did not obey the Renville agreement, so that military aggression II returned to happen which they remained to be considered as Police Action. They directly attacked the governance center in Bukit Tinggi and Yogyakarta. This attack was peiformed all at once. The information which was passed to the Republic of Indonesia only at midnight on December 18, 1948.
The next moming, on December 19, 1948, the Dutch started to perform an invasion action applying airborne troops to Maguwo Airport. At this attack, most of all leaders of Republic of Indonesia were under arrest by the Dutch party such as President Soekarno, Sutan Sjahrir, and H. Agus Salim were exiled to Brastagi, while Moh. Hatta, Ali Sastroamidjojo and the other were banished to Parapat.
Pagi harinya tanggal 19 Desember 1948, Belanda mulai melakukan aksi penyerbuan dengan menggunakan pasukan lintas udara ke Bandara Maguwo. Pada serangan ini, hampir semua pimpinan RI ditahan oleh pihak Belanda seperti Presiden Soekarno, Sutan Sjahrir, dan H. Agus Salim dibuang ke Brastagi, sedangkan Moh. Hatta, Ali Sastroamidjojo dan lainnya di.buang ke Parapat.
Several hours before the invasion, a limited meeting was held and its contents among others were as follows.. Beberapa jam sebelum penyerbuan ini, diadakan rapat terbatas yang isinya antara lain sebagai berikut.
 
1. Through radiogram to give mandate to Safruddin Prawiranegara (Minister of Prosperity) to form an emergency government of Republic of Indonesia in Bukit Tinggi, West Sumatra.
Pemberian Mandat kepada Safruddin Prawiranegara (Menteri Kemakmuran) melalui radiogram untuk membentuk Pemerintah Darurat Republik Indonesia di Bukit Tinggi Sumatra Barat. 
2. If Safruddin Prawiranegara failed to form an emergency government, then the president mandated L.N. Palar who was existing in India to form "an Exile Government".
Bila Safruddin Prawiranegara gagal membentuk pemerintah darurat, maka presiden memandatkan untuk membentuk "Exile Government" kepada L.N. Palar yang berada di India.
The military side in this case the soldiers and irregulars were very regretting of unwillingness of Soekarno-Hatta to wage guerrilla whereas some previous months they promised they would participate to wage guerrilla if Yogyakarta was invaded. General Sudirman who was the military commander at that time issued a command of Tactics number 1 which contained about the following matters.
Pihak militer dalam hal ini tentara dan laskar sangat menyayangkan ketidaksediaan Soekarno-Hatta untuk bergerilya padahal beberapa bulan sebelumnya mereka menjanjikan akan ikut bergerilya bila Yogyakarta diserang. Jenderal Sudirman yang pada waktu itu menjadi Panglima tentara mengeluarkan perintah Siasat No.1 yang berisi tentang hal-hal sebagai berikut.
1. Would not perform a Linear defence.
Tidak akan melakukan pertahanan Linier.
2. Duty to slow down the advance and invasion of the enemy and also total evacuation and scorched earth totally.
Tugas memperlambat kemajuan dan serbuan musuh serta pengungsian total serta bumi hangus total.
3. Duty to form enclaves at each military under district which had a totalitarian guerrilla governance and had a center at some mountain complexes.
Tugas membentuk kantong-kantong di setiap onderdistrik militer yang mempunyai pemerintahan gerilya yang totaliter dan mempunyai pusat di beberapa kompleks pegunungan.
4. The duty of the troops coming from Federal area to infiltrate so that all Java became a large guerrilla warfare field area, or in another word a guerrilla warfare t'and its Long March of Siliwangi troops to West Java.
Tugas pasukan-pasukan yang berasal dari daerah Federal untuk menyusup sehingga seluruh pulau Jawa menjadi medan area perang geri lya yang besar, atau dengan kata lain perang Gerilya dan Long March-nya pasukan Sil iwangi ke Jawa Barat.
General Sudirman who was ill at that time remained to follow in action with a sedan chair carried by some of his loyal body-guards. The spirit of General Sudirman became a life legend who was respected by friend side and also enemy.
Jenderal Sudirman yang pada waktu itu sedang sakit tetap ikut dalam perang dengan ditandu yang dibawa oleh beberapa pengaward pribadinya yang setia. Semangat Jenderal Sudirman ini menjadi legenda hidup yang disegani oleh pihak kawan maupun lawan.
Moh. Hatta put forward the reason why Soekarno and he himself did not join to wage a guerrilla warfare, among others were as follows.
Sedangkan Moh. Hatta mengemukakan alasan mengapa Soekarno dan dirinya tidak ikutpelakukan perang gerilya, antara lain sebagai berikut.
Kronologi Sejarah dan Latar Belakang Agresi Militer Belanda II

1. The work of the guerrilla troops became inefffective because besides they had to fight against the Dutch, they also had to protect the President and Vice President. In addition the available troops were very limited.
Kerja pasukan gerilya menjadi tidak efektif sebab selain harus melawan Belanda, mereka juga harus melindungi Presiden dan Wakil Presiden. Ditambah lagi pasukan yang ada sangat terbatas.
2. If they participated to wage a guerrilla and were killed in the forest then their status was not recognized as a state functioners but as rebels. If they were arrested, then many comments of international world would arise.
Jika mereka ikut bergerilya dan nanti terbunuh di hutan maka status mereka tidaklah diakui sebagai pejabat negara tetapi sebagai pemberontak. Jika ditahan, maka akan menimbulkan banyak tanggapan dari dunia Intemasional.





Sumber Pustaka: Yrama Widya