Kronologi Sejarah dan Latar Belakang Peristiwa Rengasdengklok

Berita kekalahan Jepang telah sampai kepada para pemuda melalui radio gelap yang mereka dengar secara sembunyi-sembunyi. Timbul tuntutan untuk mempercepat proses proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia kepada Soekarno dan Moh. Hatta. Akan tetapi, di lain pihak Soekarno dan Hatta berpendapat bahwa kemerdekaan Indonesia sebaiknya dilakukan sesuai proses-proses yang telah berjalan dari awal terutama melalui wadah PPKI dan menunggu untuk dibahas dalam persidangan PPKI pada tanggal 18 Agustus 1945.
News about the defeat of Japanese had arrived to young men through the illicit radio which they listened secretly. A demand to advance the process of proclamadon independence of Indonesia to Soekarno and Moh. Hatta arose. However, on the other hand Soekarno and Hattici had a notion that the independence of Indonesia had better to be realized according to the processes which had run from the beginning especially through the Coinmittee of Preparation of lndonesia Independence institution and awaited to be talked about in the session of the Committee of Preparation of Indonesia Independence on August 18, 1945.
The young men faction did not agree with that thing. They had a notion alin"rtri that if the proclamation of independence of Indonesia was through the Committee of Preparation of Indonesia Independence institution would impress that the independence of Indonesia was a gift of Japanese, more over the position of Indonesia after independent would be hesitated and considered to be the Japanese puppet. The independence which they wished had to be performed as soon as possible and was not related to the institution made by Japanese or instead Japanese party itself. In addition to the young faction, Soekarno also got pressure from another old prominent figure as Sutan Sjahrir.
Golongan pemuda ticlak sepakat dengan hal itu. Mereka berpendapat bahwa jika Proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia melalui wadah PPKI akan terkesan bahwa kemerdekaan Indonesia ini adalah pemberian Jepang, ditambah lagi posisi Indonesia setelah merdeka akan diragukan dan dianggap sebagai boneka Jepang. Kemerdekaan yang mereka inginkan adalah harus dilakukan secepatnya dan tidak terkait dengan lembaga buatan Jepang atau malahan pihak Jepang sendiri. Selain dari golongan muda, Soekarno juga mendapat tekanan dari tokoh tua lelarne."" lainnya seperti Sutan Sjahrir.
On August 15, 1945 young men brought about a meeting at 13 East Pegangsaan Road, precisely in the room of Bacteriological Laboratory led by Chairul Saleh.
Pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1945 para pemuda melakukan rapat di jalan Pegangsaan Timur No.13 tepatnya di ruangan Bacteriologis Laboratorium yang diketuai oleh Chairul Saleh.
The meeting yielded several agreements among others were as follows. "Pada pertemuan itu mereka menghasilkan beberapa kesepakatan antara lain sebagai berikut".
  • Independence of Indonesia was the right and the own question of Indonesian people, did not depend on another state.
    Kemerdekaan Indonesia adalah hak dan masalah rakyat Indonesia sendiri, bukan tergantung pada negara lain.
  • Realizing the Proclamation of Independence by Indonesian nation itself which was free from any foreign nation.
    Mewujudkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan oleh bangsa Indonesia sendiri yang bebas dari bangsa asing mana pun.
  • Seeing Soekarno-Hatta. Menemui Soekarno-Hatta.
Hence Wikana and Darwis as young men proxies were delegased to see Soekarno to submit this result, in order that he immediately proclaimed the independence. They clarified that the armed forces of fatherland protector, bodily shock troops, indigenous militia and young men team were ready to besiege the town to run an armed revolution for the sake of smashing the Japanese army. But, that wish was refused by Soekarno with various consideration among others were unpreparedness and limi-tation of weapons owned by young men.
Untuk menyampaikan hasil ini, maka diutuslah Wikana dan Darwis sebagai wakil pemuda untuk menemui Soekarno agar segera memproklamasikan kemerdekaan. Mereka menjelaskan bahwa pasukan bersenjata dari Peta, barisan pelopor, Heiho dan pasukan pemuda siap mengepung kota untuk menjalankan revolusi bersenjata demi menghancurkan tentara Jepang. Tetapi, keinginan itu ditolak oleh Soekarno dengan berbagai pertimbangan di antaranya ketidaksiapan dan keterbatasan persenjataan yang dimiliki oleh para pemuda.
The failure of the young men proxies to invite Soekarno was perceived seriously by them till they had a meeting led by Chaerul Saleh at 71 Cikini Raya, Jakarta.
Kegagalan para wakil pemuda dalam mengajak Soekarno ditanggapi dengan serius oleh mereka sampai-sampai diadakan rapat yang dipimpin oleh Chaerul Saleh di Cikini Raya No.71 Jakarta. The meeting acceded to several things hereunder. Dalam rapat itu disepakati beberapa hal dibawah ini.
  • Independence had to be declared by the people them selves without awaiting independence of Japanese gift.
    Kemerdekaan harus dinyatakan sendiri oleh rakyat tanpa menunggu kemerdekaan hadiah dari Jepang.
  • Taking Soekarno-Hatta to Rengasdengklok, Karawang in order that being out of Japanese influence to oppress and hinder the independence of Indonesia.
    Membawa Soekarno-Hatta ke Rengasdengklok, Karawang agar terhindar dari pengaruh Jepang untuk menindas dan menghalangi kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Rengasdengklok was selected because this small town was considered safe and free of Japanese military power because it had been occupied by the army of fatherland protector headed by Syodanco Subeno added by civil guardian who merged into Keibodan and Seinendan had united in fatherland protector.
Rengasdengklok dipilih karena kota kecil ini dianggap aman dan bebas dari kekuatan militer Jepang karena sudah diduduki oleh tentara PETA pimpinan Syodanco Subeno ditambah lagi para Pamong Praja dan pemuda yang tergabung dalam Keibodan dan Seinendan sudah bersatu dalam PETA.
Kronologi Sejarah dan Latar Belakang Peristiwa Rengasdengklok
The prominent figures who were commisioned to fetch Soekarno-Hatta among others were Sukarni, Jusuf Kunto, Chaerul Saleh, Singgih, Sutrisno, Sampun, and Surachman and were also aided by fatherland protector group under tight guard. At the arrival to the destination, they were greeted with yell "INDEPENDENT" by fatherland protector army.

 
A sharp discussion between Soekarno and young menprominent figures happened at this place, which then was splitted the difference where Soekarno would read off the proclamation-of independence of Indonesia in Jakarta, not at Rengasdengklok. This news was submitted by Syodanco Singgih to combatant young men whose station was at 31 Menteng Raya Road, Jakarta.
Tokoh-tokoh yang bertugas menjemput Soekarno-Hatta antara lain Sukarn. Jusuf Kunto, Chaerul Saleh, Singgih, Sutrisno, Sampun, dan Surachman serta dibantu oleh pasukan PETA dengan pengawalan ketat. Setibanya di tempat yang dituju, mereka disambut dengan pekik "MERDEKA" oleh tentara PETA.

Di tempat inilah terjadi pembahasan yang sengit antara Soekarno dan para tokoh pemuda yang kemudian diambil jalan tengah dimana Soekarno akan membacakan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia di Jakarta, bukan di Rengasdengklok. Berita ini disampaikan oleh Syodanco Singgih kepada para pemuda pej uang yang bermarkas di Jalan Menteng Raya No. 31 Jakarta.
The news about the loss of Soekarno-Hatta caused panicity of the Committee of Preparation of Indonesia Independence members who had a plan to hold a session. After being traced in fact the place of Soekarno-Hatta could be found out. A liason in the group of Kaigun (Japanese Navy) that was Mr. Achmad Soebardjo was given an assignment to fetch Soekarno-Hatta at Rengasdengklok. Mr. Achmad Soebardjo also gave a guarantee to the young men that Soekarno-Hatta would proclaim the indeoendence of Indonesia as soon as possible, at the furthest on August 17, 1945.
Berita tentang hilangnya Soekarno-Hatta menyebabkan kepanikan anggota PPKI yang rencananya akan bersidang. Setelah ditelusuri ternyata tempat Soekarno-Hatta dapat diketahui. Seorang penghubung dalam kelompok Kaigun (Angkatan Laut Jepang) yaitu Mr. Achmad Soebardjo ditugasi untuk menjemput Soekarno-Hatta di Rengasdengklok. Mr.Achmad Soebardjo pula yang memberikan jaminan kepada para pemuda bahwa Soekarno-Hatta akan secepatnya memproklamasikan Kemerdekaan Indonesia paling lambat tanggal 17 Agustus 1945. 





Sumber Pustaka: Yrama Widya