Kronologi Sejarah dan Latar Belakang Perlawanan Rakyat Maluku

Perlawanan rakyat Maluku terhadap penj ajah dilakukan sejak tahun 1512, dipimpiri oleh Sultan Khairun dan Sultan Baabullah (1575). Kemarahan rakyat terhadap Portugis sudah tidak dapat dibendung lagi, karena mereka selalu bersikap sewenang-wenang kepada rakyat. Pada tahun 1533, rakyat Ternate membakar benteng milik Portugis yang dipimpin oleh Dajalo. Portugis pun membalas tindakan rakyat Ternate, dan segera mengirim bala-bantuan dari Malaka di bawah pimpinan Antonio Galvao pada tahun 1536. Mereka menyerbu Temate dan berhasil mengalahkannya. Dengan demikian, Portugis masih dapat mempertahankan kekuasaannya di wilayah Maluku.
The resistance of koluccan people started in 1512, led by Sultan Khairun and Sultan Baabullah (1575). The people's anger with the Portu-guese was unbearable because their attitude to the people was always arbitrary. In 1533, the people of Ternate set fire to a Portuguese fort w. hich was headed by Dajalo. The Portuguese retaliated and they summoned relief forces from Malacca in 1536 under the command of Antonio Galvao. They attacked Ternate and defeated it. So the Portuguese could still ma. intain their authority in Moluccas.
When Galvao was in power (1536-1540), he managed to establish good relationship with the Moluccans. But a.fter Galvao was replaced, the Portuguese monopolized spices trade in Moluccas again. Resistance of the Moluccans broke out again under the command of Sultan Khairun which ended in an agreement in 1565. The agreement was made between Governor Lopez de Mosquita and Sultan Khairun. However, not long after the signing of the agreement, Sulta.n Khairun was murdered by the Portuguese's abettors. The incident sparked the peoples fury, in particular Sultan Baabullah, the son of sultan Khairun. A war broke out again and s won by Ternate.
Selama Galvao berkuasa (1536-1540), ia berhasil menjalin hubungan baik dengan rakyat Maluku. Namun, setelah Galvao diganti, Portugis kembali memonopoli perdagangan rempah-rempah di Maluku. Perlawanan rakyat Maluku pun kembali berkobar di bawah pimpinan Sultan Khairun yang berakhir pada tahun 1565 melalui perundingan. Perundingan tersebut berlangstmg antara Gubernur Lopez de Mosquita dan Sultan Khairun. Namun, tidak lama setelah perjanjian itu ditandatangani; Sultan Khairun dibunuh oleh kaki-tangan Portugis. Kejadian tersebut menyulut kemarahan rakyat, terutama Sultan Baabullah, putra Sultan Khairun. Peperangan pun berkobar dan berakhir dengan kemenangan Temate.
Nonetheless, the struggle of Moluccan people had not ended because Moluccas was not only colonized by the Portuguese but also by VOC (the Dutch). Like the Portuguese, VOC also wanted to monopolize spices trade in Moluccas. To realize the ambition, VOC cooperated with Ternate which was led by Sultan Hamzah. VOC's monopoly of the trade in Moluccas aroused people's resistance under the leadership of Kokial in Ambon Islands.

The Dutch sent troops to suppress the resistance under the command of Governor General Antonio Van Dieman who came from Batavia in 1637 and 1638. The resistance could be suppressed and Kokiali was killed in battle. Meanwhile, a resistance also emerged in Hitu which was led by Telukabesi, but the resistance could be put to an end by the Dutch in 1646.
Namun, perjuangan rakyat Maluku untuk mengusir penjajah belum selesai, karena selain oleh Portugis, Maluku pun dijajah oleh VOC (Belanda). Sama halnya dengan Portugis, VOC pun bertujuan untuk memonopoli perdagangan rempah-rempah di Maluku. Dalam meraih ambisinya tersebut, VOC bekerja sama dengan Ternate di bawah pimpinan Sultan Hamzah. Tindakan VOC yang memonopoli perdagangan di Maluku mengundang perlawanan rakyat di bawah pimpinan Kokiali di Kepulauan Ambon.

Pemerintah Belanda mengirimkan pasukan untuk memadamkan perlawanan tersebut di bawah pimpinan Gubernur Jenderal Antonio Van Dieman yang datang dari Batavia pada tahun 1637 dan 1638. Perlawanan berhasil dipadamkan dan Kokiali gugur dalam pertempuran. Sementara itu, di Hitu pun timbul perlawanan yang dipimpin oleh Telukabesi, namun pada tahun 1646, perlawanan itu dapat dikalahkan oleh Belanda.
In 1649, the Dutch organized or a patrol by a small ship the purpose of which was to destroy the nutmeg and clove plants of the people.
Pada tahun 1649, Belanda melaksanakan Hongi (perjalanan keliling dengan menggunakan perahu kecil) dengan tujuan membinasakan tanaman pala dan cengkeh milik rakyat.
The action aroused resistance from Moluccan people under the leadership of Saidi. However, the resistance could be suppressed and Saidi was captured and then sentenced to death (1656).
Tindakan tersebut menimbulkan perlawanan dari rakyat Maluku di bawah pimpinan Saidi.. Namun perlawanan rakyat Maluku dapat dikalahkan, Saidi tertangkap dan dihukum mati (1656).
In 1675, another people's resistance appeared again in Jailolo. But as before, the Dutch managed to suppress the resistance of Moluccans. Meanwhile, the Dutch captured Sultan Jamaluddin of Tidore. The capture was done because the sultan refused to deliver East Seram to the Dutch.

The Dutch's act aroused the fttry of Moluccan people. Sultan Nuku (the son of Sultan Jamaluddin) conducted a resistance against VOC. Using a smart trick, he manipulated the British into attacking the Dutch. After he could drive away the Dutch, he backfired and attacked the British people and drove them away.
Pada tahun 1675, di daerah Jailolo terjadi lagi perlawanan rakyat. Seperti biasa, Belanda berhasil mengalahkan perlawanan rakyat Maluku. Sementara itu, Belanda melakukan penangkapan terhadap Sultan Jamaluddin dari Tidore. Penangkapan tersebut dilakijkan karena sultan tidak bersedia untuk menyerahkan Seram Timur kepada Belanda.

Tindakan Belanda tersebut kembali menimbulkan kemarahan rakyat Maluku. Sultan Nuku (putra Sultan Jamaluddin) melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC. Dengan siasat cerdiknya, Sultan Nuku memperalat bangsa Inggris untuk memerangi Belanda. Setelah berhasil mengusir Belanda, Sultan Nuku berbalik menyerang Inggris dan berhasil mengusirnya.
Besides the abovementioned heroes, there was another outstanding freedom fighter from Moluccas whose name was Thomas Matulesi (Captain Pattimura). He started his resistance by attacking Duurstede Fort (belong to the Dutch) in Saparua. He succeeded in capturing the fort.
Selain para pejuang yang telah disebutkan di atas, terdapat pej uang Maluku lain yang bernama Thomas Matulesi (Kapitan Pattimura). Perlawanan yang dilakukannya diawali dengan menyerbu Benteng Duurstede (Benteng Belanda) di Saparua. Ia berhasil merebut benteng tersebut.
Governor Van Middlekoop promptly sent troops from Ambon under the command of Major Beetjes. The troops landed in Saparua on 20 May 1817 and were welcomed with gunfires by Saparuan people, then Beetjes' troops changed direction toward a bay corner on the left of the fort..There they were also wecomed with gunfires. Finally, the troops decided to pull back, but Pattimura's troops kept chasing them. Major Beetjes was killed in the battle.

Kronologi Sejarah dan Latar Belakang Perlawanan Rakyat Maluku

Gubernur Van Middelkoop segera mengirim pasukan dari Ambon di bawah pimpinan Mayor Beetjes. Pasukan ini mendarat di Saparua pada tanggal 20 Mei 1817, dan disambut dengan tembakan rakyat Saparua; kemudian pasukan Beetjes memutar haluan ke sebuah tikungan teluk di sebelah kiri benteng. Di sana pun mereka disambut dengan tembakan. Akhirnya, pasukan tersebut bermaksud untuk mundur, akan tetapi pasukan Pattimura terus mengejarnya. Di dalam pertempuran tersebut, Mayor Beetjes tewas.
To revenge for the defeat, the Dutch soon maneuvered their war ships in Saparua waters. They fired their guns toward Duurstede fort. However, they failed to capture Pattimura. Because of that, the Dutch then used a divisive policy (devide et impera). They announced to the people that anyone who could inform them of the whereabout of Pattimura would be awarded 1,000 guilders.

This strategy was successful. The king of Boi told informed them of the hiding place of Pattimura. The Dutch sent a lot of troops to capture Pattimura on Boi Hill. On 16 December 1817, Pattimura was captured and sentenced to death. He was hanged at Nieuw Victoria Fort in Ambon. The capture of Pattimura ended the resis-tance of Moluccan people.
Sebagai pembalasan atas kekalahannya, Belanda segera menempatkan kapal-kapal perangnya di perairan Saparua. Mereka menembakkan#meriam ke arah benteng Duurstede. Namun, mereka gagal menangkap Pattimura. Oleh karena itu, Belanda menggunakan politik devide et impera (politik adu domba).

Belanda mengumumkan kepada masyarakat, barangsiapa yang dapat memberi tahu dimana Pattimura berada, akan diberi hadiah uang sebesar 1000 gulden. Siasat ini berhasil dilakukan. Raja Boi memberi tahu tempat persembunyian Pattimura. Belanda mengerahkan pasukan besar-besaran untuk menangkap Pattimura di Bukit Boi. Pada tanggal 16 Desember 1817, Pattimura ditangkap dan dij atuhi hukuman mati. Ia digantung di benteng Nieuw Victoria di Ambon. Penangkapan Pattimura mengakhiri perjuangan rakyat Maluku.




Sumber Pustaka: Yrama Widya