Sejarah Latar Belakang Kedatangan Bangsa Portugis ke Indonesia

Semangat bertualang telah mendorong bangsa Portugis untuk mengarungi lautan. Mereka ingin menaklukkan tantangan alam, ingin menaklukkan orang yang berbeda keyakinan dengan mereka, ingin menyebarkan agama Kristen, serta menumpas bangsa-bangsa yang dianggap menghalangi tujuan mereka. Oleh karena itu, kapal penjelajah Portugis selalu dilengkapi dengan meriam. Senjata tersebut digunakan ketika mereka akan mendarat di pelabuhan yang didatanginya.
The spirit of adventure had encouraged Portuguese people to explore the sea. They wanted to overcome natural challenges, conquer people whose belief was different from theirs, spread Christianity, and destroy peoples that obstructed them from achieving their goals. Therefore, Portuguese exploration ships were always equipped with guns. The guns were used when they were about to land in certain ports they visited.
European peoples knew Asia, including Indonesia, through trade. The breakoff of the Mediterranean trade route had compelled Portuguese people to directly look for regions that produced spices. In South East Asia, there was a region which became a center of trade. This region which was always busy as a strate-gic trade lane was Malacca.

Meanwhile, the region which produced spices was the Moluccas. Portuguese people wanted to take control of the trade in Malacca and take over the spices-producing regon, Moluccas. It was from here that the history of colonization in Indonesia started. The Portuguese voyage to Indonesia was led by Alfonso D'Albuquerque (1459-1511).

The arrival of Portuguese people in Malacca was not welcomed by the sul-tan of Malacca. Because of that, the sultans of Malacca and Sumatra, including Aceh, repeatedly attacked the Portuguese. Sometimes they cooperated with some kingdoms in Java to attack the Portuguese. However, their attacked always failed, the Javanese armadas were even destroyed by the Portuguese in Malaka.
Bangsa-bangsa Eropa mengenal wilayah Asia, termasuk Indonesia, melalui perd4angan. Putusnya jalur perdagangan Laut Tengah telah mendorong Portugis untuk menemukan daerah penghasil rempah-rempah secara langsung. Di Tenggara, terdapat suatu daerah yang dijadikan sebagai pusat perdagangan. Daerah ini selalu ramai dan sangat strategis sebagai jalur perdagangan, yaitu Malaka.

Sedangkan daerah yang menjadi sumber rempah-rempahnya terdapat di Maluku. Portugis bermaksud menguasai perdagangan di Malaka dan merebut daerah penghasil rempah-rempah, yaitu Maluku. Dari sinilah sejarah penjajahan di Indonesia dimulai. Pelayaran Portugis ke Indonesia dipimpin oleh Alfonso D 'Albuquerque (1459-1511).

Kedatangan bangsa Portugis di Malaka tidak disukai oleh sultan Malaka. Oleh karena itu, sultan-sultan di Malaka dan Sumatra, termasuk Aceh, melakukan penyerangan berkali-kali kepada Portugis. Ada kalanya dalam melakukan penyerangan, mereka bersatu dengan kerajaan-kerajaan di Pulau Jawa. Namun, penyerangan mereka selalu mengalami kegagalan, bahkan armada Jawa di Malaka berhasil dihancurkan oleh Portugis. 
The Portuguese expedition under the leadership of Alfdnso D'Albuquerque succeeded in conqttering Malacca in 1511. Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia which began with the arrival of Alfon'so D'Albuquerque was practiced by developing a modern imperialism system. Their slogan wasu Gold (wealth), Glory (greatness), and Gospel (holy book).
Ekspedisi Portugis di bawah pimpinan Alfonso D'AlbuquerqUe berhasil menaklukkan Malaka pada tahun 1511. Kolonialisme Portugis di Indonesia yang diawali dengan kedatangan Alfonso D'Albuquerque tersebut, dilakukan dengan mengembangkan sistem imperialisme modern. Semboyan mereka adalah Gold (kekayaan), Glory (kejayaan), dan Gospel (kitab suci).
In December, Alfonso D'Albuquerque sent three ships to sail to the east under the command of Antonio da Breu. They left Malacca for Madura, Bali, Lombok, Aru, and Banda. However, two of this ships rcommanded by Antonio da Breu ran aground in Banda.
Pada bulan Desember, Alfonso D'Albuquerque mengirim tiga kapal untuk menjelajah ke arah timur, di bawah pimpinan Antonio da Breu. Mereka meninggalkan Malaka dan menuju Madura, Bali, Lombok, Aru, dan Banda. Namun dua kapal yang dipimpin Antonio da Breu kandas di Banda.
Finally, Antonio da Breu returned to Malacca. The exploration was continued by Francisco Serrao, who managed to reach Ambon, Ternate, and Tidore. The Portttguese built a fort in Ternate.
Akhirnya, Antonio da Breu pun kembali ke Malaka. Penj elaj ahan dilanjutkan oleh Francisco Serrao yang berhasil mencapai Ambon, Ternate, dan Tidore. Poirtugis membangun sebuah benteng di Ternate.
In 1513, the Portuguese built some factories in Ternate and Bacan. In May 1522, a Portuguese expedition led by de Britox arrived in Ternate and then built a fort called "Sao Paolo". Antinio da Galveo because a governor there. In Ternate, the Portuguese captured Sultan Tabariji who was still in power, because he was suspected of being part of an anti-Portuguese movement. The Portuguese then replaced Sultan Tabariji with his brother.
Pada tahun 1513, Portugis membangun pabrik-pabrik di Ternate dan Bacan. Pada bulan Mei 1522, ekspedisi Portugis yang dipimpin oleh de Britox tiba di Ternate dan membangun benteng yang bemama "Sao Paolo" Antonio da Galveo menj adi gubernur di sana. Di Ternate, Portugis menangkap Sultan Tabariji yang sedang berkuasa, karena dicurigai sebagai bagian dari gerakan anti-Portugis. Portugis pun melakukan penggantian kedudukan Sultan Tabariji oleh saudaranya.
Besides, the Portuguese also helped Ternate to control Jailolo Sultnate in Halmahera. In 1570, the sultan of Ternate named Sultan Khairun signed a treaty of friendship with the Portuguese. But one day after that, Sultan Khairun was found dead of poison. The people of Ternate suspected the Portuguese. 

Sejarah Latar Belakang Kedatangan Bangsa Portugis ke Indonesia

Selain itu, Portugis juga membantu Ternate mengawasi Kesultanan Jailolo di Halmakera. Pada tahun 1570, sultan Ternate yang bernama Sultan Khairun men.andatangani perjanjian persahabatan dengan Portugis. Namun, sehari sesudahnya, Sultan Khairun ditemukan meninggal karena racun. Rakyat Ternate menaruh curiga kepada Portugis.
Following the death of Sultan Khairun, his son named Baabullah was appointed sultan (1570-1583). He promised to drive the Portuguese out of their fortificatton. In 1575, Baabullah managed to realize his promise. He was able to expel the Portuguese out of Ternate.
Setelah kematian Sultan Khairun, putra Sultan Khairun yang bernama Baabullah diangkat menjadi sultan (1570-1583). Ia eberjanji akan mengusir Portugis dari benteng mereka. Pada tahun 1575, Baabullah pun telah memenuhi janj inya. Ia berhasil mengusir Portugis dari Ternate.
But besides Ternate, the Portuguese had also controlled other areas in Indonesia, such as Timor, Demak, Aceh, Flores, Ambon and others. The Indonesian people's hatred of the Portuguese encouraged them to resist. Indonesian people wanted to expel the Portuguese from Indonesia.
Namun, selain di Ternate, Portugis juga telah berhasil menguasai daerah-daerah lain di Indonesia, seperti: Timor, Demak, Aceh, Flores, Ambon, dan lain-lain. Kebencian rakyat Indonesia terhadap Portugis mendorong mereka untuk mengadakan perlawanan. Rakyat Indonesia ingin mengusir Portugis dari bumi Indonesia.





Sumber Pustaka: Yrama Widya