Sejarah Latar Belakang Lahirnya Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI)

Sejarah Lahirnya Partai Nasional Indonesia - PNI didirikan pada tanggal 4 Juli 1927 oleh golongan pelajar yang tergabung dalam Algemeene Studie Club Bandung yang dipimpin oleh Ir. Soekarno. Tujuan PNI adalah untuk mencapai Indonesia merdeka dengan asas berdiri di atas kaki sendiri, non-kooperatif, dan marhaenisme.
The Indonesian Nationalist Party was founded on July 4, 1927 by the student group who merged in Algemeene Studie Club of Bandung led by Ir Soekarno. The aim of the party was to reach independent Indonesia on the principle of self-sufficiency, non-cooperative, and proletarianism.
Under the leadership of Soekarno, the Indonesian Nationalist Party advanced rapidly because Soekarno could draw the mass. Besides because the oration of Soekarno which was able to brace up, also because the propagandas launched by the Indonesian Nationalist Party contained about its aspiration to be able to secede from colonization, founding a state selfrule, and was able to fire the Indonesian people to free.
Di bawah kepemimpinan Soekarno, PNI berkembang dengan pesat karena. Soekarno mampu menarik massa. Selain karena pidato Soekarno yang mampu membangkitkan semangat rakyat, juga karena propaganda-propaganda yang dilancarkan PNI berisi tentang cita-citanya untuk dapat melepaskan diri dari penjajahan, mendirikan negara dan pemerintahan sendiri, dan mampu mengobarkan semangat rakyat Indonesia untuk merdeka.
The rapid growth of the Indonesian Nationalist Party made the governance of the Dutch colonial worry. In the opening of Council People Session on May 15, 1928, the Governor General sent an admonition to the Indonesian Nationalist Party. But, the admonition was disregard to the Indonesian Nationalist Party.

In July 1929, the government of the Dutch colonial sent a warning for the second time, however it remained not to be responded. Finally, on December 24, 1929, the government of the Dutch colonial arrested the leaders of the Indonesian Nationalist Party such as Sioekarno, Maskun, Gatot Mangkupraja, and Supriadinata.

Besides the admonition of the government of the Dutch colonial which was disregard, the arrest happened because the news that the Indonesian Nationalist Party would perform a rebellion against the government of the Dutch colonial had spread. The seizure occurred in 1930, namely when Soekarno was going home from congress of Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality in Surakarta. Nine months later, they were just brought to justice in Bandung.
Perkembangan PNI yang pesat tersebut membuat pemerintahan kolonial Belanda menjadi khawatir. Dalam pembukaan Sidang Dewan Rakyat pada tanggal 15 Mei 1928, Gubernur Jenderal memberi peringatan kepada PNI. Namun, peringatan tersebut tidak ditanggapi oleh PNI.

Pada bulan Juli 1929, pemerintah kolonial Belanda kembali memberi peringatan untuk kedua kalinya, akan tetapi tetap tidak ditanggapi. Akhirnya, pada tanggal 24 Desember 1929, pemerintah kolonial Belanda menangkap para pemimpin PNI seperti Soekarno, Maskun, Gatot Mangkupraja, dan Supriadinata.

Selain peringatan pemerintah kolonial Belanda yang tidak ditanggapi, penangkapan tersebut terjadi karena tersiar kabar bahwa PNI akan mengadakan pemberontakan terhadap pemerintah kolonial Belanda. Penangkapan Soekarno terjadi pada tahun 1930, yaitu ketika Soekarno pulang dari Kongres PPPKI di Surakarta. Sembilan bulan kemudian, mereka baru diadili di pengadilan Landraad Bandung.
Soekarno pleaded in his oration with a theme Indonesia Claimed. On December 22, 1930 the leaders of the Indonesian Nationalist Party were prisoned. Soekarno was prisoned for 4 years, Gatot Mangkupraja 2 years, Maskun 1 year 8 months, and Supriadinata 1 year 3 months.

The Indonesian Nationalist Party PNI was even disbanded in 1931. Sartono immediately held a congress to talk about disbandment of the Indonesian Nationalist Party and forming of a new party. The party was named the Indonesian Party led by Sartono.

The Indonesian Party had three principles, they were Self-Supporting, Cooperative, and Swadeshi (a way of to support domestic industry and effort to return the nationality pirit).
Soekarno memberikan pembelaan dalam pidatonya dengan tema Indonesia Menggugat. Pada tanggal 22 Desember 1930, para pemimpin PNI dipenjarakan. Soekarno dihukum penjara selama 4 tahun, Gatot Mangkupraja 2 tahun, Maskun 1 tahun 8 bulan, dan Supriadinata 1 tahun 3 bulan.

PNI pun dibubarkan pada tahun1931. Sartono segera menyelenggarakan kongres untuk membicarakan tentang pembubaran PNI dan pembentukan partai baru. Partai tersebut bernama Partindo (Partai Indonesia) yang dipimpin oleh Sartono.

Partindo mempunyai tiga asas, yaitu Swadaya, Kooperatif, dan Swadesi (suatu cara untuk mendukung industri dalam negeri dan upaya mengembalikan semangat kebangsaan).
Sejarah Latar Belakang Lahirnya Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI)

The Indonesian Party got a lot of obstacles because in 1937 its members were only amounted to 3.000 people, was not like the Indonesian? Nationalist Party which had members to 10.000 people in the 1929. Besides, the figure as Mohammad Hatta even founded a new party, it was the Indonesian Nationalist Education. Mohammad Hatta was discontented because the Indonesian Nationalist Party was disbanded without the knowledge of its members.
Partindo banyak mendapatkan hambatan karena pada tahun 1937 anggotanya hanya berj umlah 3.000 orang, tidak seperti PNI yang beranggotakan 10.000 orang pada tahun 1929. Selain itu, tokoh seperti Mohammad Hatta malah mendirikan partai baru, yaitu Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia (PNI Pendidikan). Mohammad Hatta merasa kecewa karena PNI dibubarkan tanpa sepengetahuan para anggotanya.
After Soekarno was freed from prison, he joined in the Indonesian Party and appointed as branch chairman in Bandung. With his capability of i-mpressive oration and propaganda, Soekarno was able to attract the mass, so in 1933 the members of the Indonesian Party became 3.762 people.
Setelah Soekarno keluar dari penjara, ia bergabung dengan Partindo dan diangkat sebagai ketua cabang di Bandung. Dengan kemampuan pidato dan propaganda yang mengesankan, Soekarno mampu menarik massa, sehingga pada tahun 1933 anggota Partindo menjadi 3.762 orang.
In the congress of the Indonesian Party which was car-ried out on the 15 - 17 of May 1932, Soekarno released the slogans, as: Indonesia is Independent Now, Democracy and Nationality, and Unity of Indonesia. The case made Soekarno was arrested again by the government. of the Dutch colonial on Augustw 1, 1933, of comand of Governor General of De Jonge, Soekarno was exiled to Ende, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara. Mohammad Hatta and Sutan Syahrir were also banished to Boven, Digul, Irian because they showed the same attitude, namely opposing the government of the Dutch colonial.
Dalam kongres Partindo yang diselenggarakan tanggal 15-17 Mei 1932, Soekarno mengeluarkan slogan-slogan, seperti : Indonesia Merdeka Sekarang, Kerakyatan dan Kebangsaan, dan Persatuan Indonesia. Hal tersebut membuat Soekarno kembali ditangkap oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda.

Pada tanggal 1 Agustus 1933, atas perintah Gubemur Jenderal De Jonge, Soekamo dibuang ke Ende, Flores, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Mohammad Hatta dan Sutan Syahrir pun dibuang ke Boven, Digul, Irian karena menunjukkan sikap sama, yaitu menentang pemerintah kolonial Belanda.
On November 18, 1936, the Indonesian Party was disbanded and the other parties were prohibited to perform political activity.
Pada tanggal 18 November 1936, Partindo dibubarkan dan partai-partai lainnya dilarang melakukan kegiatan politik.




Sumber Pustaka: Yrama Widya