Sejarah Pemufakatan Perhimpunan-Perhimpunan Politik Kebangsaan Indonesia (PPPKI)

PPPKI terbentuk sebagai perwujudan dari keinginan untuk mengkoordinasi seluruh kekuatan pergerakan dan membentuk front bersama dalam menghadapi pemerintah Belanda. Keinginan tersebut lahir berdasarkan kenyataan bahwa setiap partai yang berani menyuarakan cita-citanya, yaitu mewujudkan Indonesia merdeka, selalu berakhir dengan kekalahan.

Mereka memandang bahwa hal tersebut terjadi karena setiap partai berjuang sendiri-sendiri dan hanya mementingkan kepentingan partai semata. Jika kekuatan-kekuatan tersebut disatukan untuk melawan pemerintah kolonial Belanda, maka diharapkan akan mampu menghancurkan belenggu penjajahan Belanda.
Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia NatThnality was formed as realization of desire to co-ordinate all power of movement and formed collective front with in confronting the Dutch government. The desire was born based on the fact that each party which dared to voice its aspiration, that was realizing independent Indonesia, always ended with defeat.
They considered that the mentioned case happened because each party struggled by itself and only emphasized of importance of the party. If the power was united to fight against the government of the Dutch colonial, hence it was expected would be able to shatter the colonization shackle of the Dutch.
As the first step to realize the expectation, a meeting agreeing on the formation of Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality was carried out on 17-18 of December 1927. The meeting was attended by representations of Islamic Union Party (Sukiman), Boedi Oetomo, the Indonesian Nationalist Party, Pasundan, Sumatranen Bond, Betawi clan, and Indonesia Study Group.

Maka, sebagai langkah pertama untuk mewujudkan harapan tersebut, pada tanggal 17-18 Desember 1927, diselenggarakan rapat yang menyepakati dibentuknya PPPKI. Rapat tersebut dihadiri oleh wakil-wakil dari PSI (Sukiman), Boedi Oetomo, PNI, Pasundan, Sumatranen Bond, kaum Betawi, dan kelompok studi Indonesia.

Though Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nation-ality which functioned as coordination had been formed, but because the existence of rumors concerning co-operative and non-cooperative attitude among the political parties, then disunion also threatened the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality.

Meskipun PPPKI yang berfungsi sebagai koordinasi telah terbentuk, namun karena adanya isu mengenai sikap kooperatif dan non-kooperatif di kalangan partai politik, maka PPPKI pun terancam perpecahan.

The first congress of Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality was carried out in Surabaya on September 2, 1928. In the congress, the proxies from each political party expressed its expectation that congress had been able to become a starter of new era to the national movement.

The working session hereinafter studied the problem of the national education, national bank, and the ways of strengthening cooperation. Besides, the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality also formed the commissions which consisted of Tjokroaminoto (Islamic Union Party), Soekarno (Indonesan Nationalist Party), Otto Soebrata (Pasundan), and Thamrin (Betawi clan), and also prepared a short-range action program.

Kongres PPPKI pertama diselenggarakan pada tanggal 2 September 1928 di Surabaya. Dalam kongres tersebut, para wakil dari setiap partai politik menyatakan harapannya bahwa kongres harus dapat menjadi permulaan era baru bagi gerakan kebangsaan.

Rapat kerja selanjutnya membahas masalah pendidikan nasional, bank nasional, dan cara-cara memperkuat kerjasama. Selain itu, PPPKI juga membentuk komisi-komisi yang terdiri dari Tjokroaminoto (PSI), Soekarno (PNI), Otto Soebrata (Pasundan), dan Thamrin (kaum Betawi), serta mempersiapkan program aksi jangka pendek.

Soetomo was appointed as chairman of the Consideration Assembly of the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality in the congress. At that opportunity, Soetomo succeeded to calm down the different opinion between the moderate group and radical pne.

The congress also suggested that the sections of the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality in the regions to be formed to increase collective activity at the branch level which was able to improve the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality its nationalism awareness.

Dalam kongres tersebut, Soetomo diangkat menjadi ketua Majelis Pertimbangan PPPKI. Pada kesempatan tersebut, Soetomo berhasil meredakan perbedaan pendapat antara kaum moderat dengan kelompok radikal.

Kongres juga menyarankan agar dibentuk seksi-seksi PPPKI daerah untuk meningkatkan aktivitas bersama pada tingkat cabang yang dapat meningkatkan PPPKI dalam kesadaran nasionalismenya.

The rapid growth of the Indonesian Party and the Indonesian Nationalist Party apparently had generated competition between both parties. The competition caused the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality could riot function properly.

Therefore, Soekarno proposed so that there was change about right voice for every party which was based on the amount of member and Great Indonesia congress was performed annually. Although that proposal had been talked about together, but the Indonesia Islamie Union Party was still not yet ready to join.

Whereas, the Indonesian Nation Party supported by Timorch Verbond and Celebes party, still could not yet accept the decision about the right voice and fastened or not about the decision, reached to all federation. members.

Perkembangan yang pesat pada Partindo dan PNI ternyata telah menimbulkan persaingan di antara kedua partai tersebut. Persaingan tersebut menyebabkan PPPKI tidak dapat berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya.

Oleh karena itu, Soekarno mengusulkan agar diadakan perubahan tentang hak suara bagi setiap partai yang didasarkan pada besar-kecilnya jumlah anggota dan agar setiap tahun diadakan kongres Indonesia Raya. Meskipun usulan itu telah dibahas bersama, namun PSII masih belum bersedia bergabung.

Sementara, PNI yang didukung oleh Timorch Verbond dan partai Celebes, masih belum dapat menerima keputusan tentang hak suara dan mengikat tidaknya keputusan, yang dicapai terhadap semua anggota federasi.

In August 1933, the government of the Dutch colonial interfered toward the parties which were noncooperative. In that condition, the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality did not play much in political arena, as initially expected.

Pemufakatan Perhimpunan-Perhimpunan Politik Kebangsaan Indonesia

That matter happened because the existence of difference of opinion and lack of togetherness in taking a decision and others among members of the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality.

Pada bulan Agustus 1933, pemerintah kolonial Belanda melakukan intervensi terhadap partai-partai yang bersifat non kooperatif.

Dalam keadaan seperti itu, PPPKI tidak banyak berperan dalam kancah politik, seperti yang diharapkan semula. Hal tersebut terjadi karena di antara anggota PPPKI terjadi perbedaan pendapat serta. ketidakkompakan dalam mengambil tindakan, dan lain-lain.

A debate that questioned the term of nationality arose in the second congress of the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality in Solo on 2527 of December 1929. According to the Islamic faction, the term of nationality was impressed nationalist, while the parties which affiliated in the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality were not merely nationalist party.

Whereas according to Soekarno and Tjokroaminoto, the term of nationality was not nationalist but contained the meaning of natignal, which covered the goals of all parties, it was realizing independent Indonesia.

Pada kongres PPPKI yang kedua di Solo pada tanggal 25-27 Desember 1929, timbul perdebatan yang mempersoalkan istilah kebangsaan. Menurut golongan Islam, istilah kebangsaan terkesan nasionalis, sedangisan partai yang tergabung dalam PPPKI bukan hanya partai nasionalis.

Sedangkan menurut Soekarno dan Tjokroaminoto, istilah kebangsaan bukan nasionalis melainkan mengandung arti nasional, yang mencakup tuj uan semua partai, yaitu mewujudkan Indonesia merdeka.

The difference of aim, ideology, and the personality caused the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality experienced disunion. The Islamic Union Party which played an important role in the forming of the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality retired in 1930. Soekarno who was considered as a unifier symbol in the Deliberation of Political Associations of Indonesia Nationality was arrested after attending congress and brought to justice in Bandung August 1930.

Perbedaan tujuan, ideologi, dan kepribadian tersebut menyebabkan PPPKI mengalami perpecahan. PSI yang sangat berperan dalam terbentuknya PPPKI mengundurkan diri pada tahun 1930. Soekamo yang dianggap simbol pemersatu dalam PPPKI ditangkap setelah menghadiri kongres dan diadili di pengadilan Bandung pada bulan Agustus 1930.




Sumber Pustaka: Yrama Widya